KHOA VẬT LÝ - VẬT LÝ KỸ THUẬT

BỘ MÔN VẬT LÝ HẠT NHÂN - KỸ THUẬT HẠT NHÂN

Abstract:

A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of a particle or system is a separation of charge along its angular momentum axis and is a direct signal of T violation and, assuming CPT symmetry, CP violation. For over 60 years EDMs have been studied, first as a signal of a parity-symmetry violation and then as a signal of CP violation that would clarify its role in nature and in theory. Contemporary motivations include the role that CP violation plays in explaining the cosmological matter-antimatter asymmetry and the search for new physics. Experiments on a variety of systems have become ever-more sensitive, but provide only upper limits on EDMs, and theory at several scales is crucial to interpret these limits. Nuclear theory provides connections from standard-model and beyond-standard-model physics to the observable EDMs, and atomic and molecular theory reveal how CP violation is manifest in these systems. EDM results in hadronic systems require that the standard-model QCD parameter of ¯θ must be exceptionally small, which could be explained by the existence of axions, also a candidate dark-matter particle. Theoretical results on electroweak baryogenesis show that new physics is needed to explain the dominance of matter in the Universe. Experimental and theoretical efforts continue to expand with new ideas and new questions, and this review provides a broad overview of theoretical motivations and interpretations as well as details about experimental techniques, experiments, and prospects. The intent is to provide specifics and context as this exciting field moves forward.

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