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LaTeX or Word? For physicists and mathematicians, the choice is obvious. But for scientists in other fields the merits of LaTeX have largely gone unnoticed.

The open-source software system — used to create and precisely format scientific manuscripts — is more akin to coding than writing. Since its development in 1985, LaTeX has become popular in disciplines such as mathematics, physics and computer science.

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Could a small ringlike structure made of plastic and copper amplify the already powerful imaging capabilities of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine? Xin Zhang, Stephan Anderson, and their team at the Boston University Photonics Center can clearly picture such a feat. With their combined expertise in engineering, materials science, and medical imaging, Zhang and Anderson, along with Guangwu Duan and Xiaoguang Zhao, designed a new magnetic metamaterial, reported in Communications Physics, that can improve MRI quality and cut scan time in half.

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A team of researchers working on the LHCb collaboration has found evidence showing that a pentaquark they have observed has a molecule-like structure. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the group describes the evidence and the structure of the pentaquark they observed.

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Scientists from RIKEN and the University of California San Diego, in collaboration with international partners have found a way to significantly reduce the amount of energy required by organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). OLEDs have attracted attention as potential replacements for liquid crystal diodes, since they offer advantages such as being flexible, thin, and not requiring backlighting.

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The three classic physical states—solid, liquid and gaseous—can be observed in any normal kitchen, for example when you bring an ice cube to the boil. But if you heat material even further, so that the atoms of a substance collide and the electrons separate from them, then another state is reached: plasma. More than 99 percent of material in space is present in this form, inside stars for instance. It is therefore no wonder that physicists are keen to study such material. Unfortunately, creating and studying plasmas on Earth using the high temperature and pressure that exist inside stars is extremely challenging for various reasons. Physicists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have now managed to solve some of these problems, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal Physical Review X.

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Abstract :

The first laser spectroscopic determination of the change in the nuclear charge radius for a five-electron system is reported. This is achieved by combining high-accuracy ab initio mass-shift calculations and a high-accuracy measurement of the isotope shift in the 2s22p2P1/22s23s2S1/2 ground state transition in boron atoms. Accuracy is increased by orders of magnitude for the stable isotopes 10,11B and the results are used to extract their difference in the mean-square charge radius r2c11r2c10=0.49(12)fm2. The result is qualitatively explained by a possible cluster structure of the boron nuclei and quantitatively used to benchmark new ab initio nuclear structure calculations using the no-core shell model and Green’s function Monte Carlo approaches. These results are the foundation for a laser spectroscopic determination of the charge radius of the proton-halo candidate 8B.

 

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